Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
Popping food into the microwave for a couple of minutes may seem utterly harmless, and Europe's stock of these quick-cooking ovens emit as much carbon as nearly 7million cars, a new study has found, and the problem is growing. With costs falling and kitchen appliances becoming "status" users, owners are throwing many microwave after an average of eight years. This is pushing sales of new microwave which are expected to reach 135 million annually in the EU by the end of the decade.
A study by the University of Manchester worked out the emissions of carbon dioxide -- the main greenhouse gas responsible for climate change -- at every stage of microwaves, from manufacture to waste disposal. "It is electricity consumption by microwaves that has the biggest impact on the environment," say the authors, who also calculate that the emissions from using 19 microwaves over a year are the same as those from a car. According to the same study, efforts to reduce consumption should focus on improving consumer awareness and behaviour to use appliances more efficiently. For example, electricity consumption by microwaves can be reduced by adjusting the time of cooking to the type of food."
However, David Reay, professor of carbon management argues that, although microwaves use a great deal of enery, their emissions are minor compared to those from cars. In the UK alone and these emit way more than all the emissions from microwaves in the EU. Backing this up, recent data show that passenger cars in the UK emitted 69m tonnes of CO2 in 2015. This is 10 times the amount this new microwave oven study estimates for annual emissions for all the microwave ovens in the whole of the EU." further, the energy used by microwaves is lower than any other form of cooking. Among common kitchen appliances used for cooking, microwaves are the most energy efficient, followed by a stove and finally a standard oven. Thus, rising microwave sales could be seen as a positive thing.
51. What is the finding of the new study?
A) Quick-cooking microwave ovens have become more popular.
B) The frequent use of microwaves may do harm to our health.
C) CO2 emissions constitute a major threat to the environment.
D) The use of microwaves emits more CO2 than people think.
52. Why are the sales of microwaves expected to rise?
A) They are becoming more afrdabla.
B) They have a shorter life cycle than other appliances.
C) They are gtting much easier to operate.
D) They take less tine to cook than other ppliaces.
53. What recommendation does the study by the University of Manchester make?
A) Cooking food of dfferent varieties.
B) Improving microwave users' habits.
C) Eating less to cut energy consumption.
D) Using microwave ovens less frequently.
54. What does Professor David Reay try to argue?
A) There are far more emissions from cars than from microwaves.
B) People should be persuaded into using passenger cars less often.
C) The UK produces less CO2 than many other countries in the EU.
D) More data are needed to show whether microwaves are harmful.
55. What does Professor David Reay think of the use of microwaves?
A) It will become less popular in the coming decades.
B) It makes everyday cooking much more convenient.
C) It plays a positive role in envronmental protection.
D) It consumes more power than conventional cooking.
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
According to the majority of Americans, women are every bit as capable of being good political leaders as men. The same can be said of their ability to dominate the corporate boardroom. And according to a new Pew Research Center survey on women and leadership, most Americans find women indistinguishable from men on key leadership traits such as intelligence and capacity for innovation, with many saying they're stronger than men in terms of being passionate and organized leaders.
So why, then, are women in short supply at the top of government and business in the United States? According to the public, at least, it's not that they lack toughness, management talent or proper skill sets.
It’s also not all about work-life balance. Although economic research and previous survey findings have shown that career interruptions related to motherhood may make it harder for women to advance in their careers and compete for top executive jobs, relatively few adults in the recent survey point to this as a key barrier for women seeking leadership roles. Only about one-in-five say women's family responsibilities are a major reason why there aren't more females in top leadership positions in business and politics.
Instead, topping the list of reasons, about four-in-ten Americans point to a double standard for women seeking to climb to the highest levels of either politics or business, where they have to do more than their male counterparts to prove themselves. Similar shares say the electorate （选民）and corporate America are just not ready to put more women in top leadership positions.
As a result, the public is divided about whether the imbalance in corporate America will change in the foreseeable future, even though women have made major advances in the workplace. While 53% believe men will continue to hold more top executive positions in business in the future, 44% say it's only a matter of time before as many women are in top executive positions as men. Americans are less doubtful when it comes to politics: 73% expect to see a female president in their lifetime.
46.What do most Americans think of women leaders according to a new Pew Research Center survey?
A) They have to do more to distinguish themselves.
B) They have to strive harder to win their positions.
C) They are stronger than men in terms of willpower.
D) They are just as intelligent and innovative as men.
47.What do we learn from previous survey findings about women seeking leadership roles?
A) They have unconquerable difficulties on their way to success.
B) They are lacking in confidence when competing with men.
C) Their failures may have something to do with family duties.
D) Relatively few are hindered in their career advancement.
48.What is the primary factor keeping women from taking top leadership positions according to the recent survey?
A) Personality traits.
B) Gender bias.
C) Family responsibilities.
D) Lack of vacancies.
49.What does the passage say about corporate America in the near future?
A) More and more women will sit in the boardroom.
B) Gender imbalance in leadership is likely to change.
C) The public is undecided about whether women will make good leaders.
D) People have opposing opinions as to whether it will have more women leaders.
50.What do most Americans expect to see soon on America's political stage?
A) A woman in the highest position of government.
B) More and more women actively engaged in politics.
C) A majority of women voting for a female president.
D) As many women in top government positions as men.
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
People have grown taller over the last century, with South Korean women shooting up by more than 20cm on average, and Iranian men gaining 16.5cm. A global study looked at the average height of 18-year-olds in 200 countries between 1914 and 2014.
The results reveal that while Swedes were the tallest people in the world in 1914, Dutch men have risen from 12th place to claim top spot with an average height of 182.5cm. Latvian women, meanwhile, rose from 28th place in 1914 to become the tallest in the world a century later, with an average height of 169.8cm.
James Bentham, a co-author of the research from Imperial College, London, says the global trend is likely to be due primarily to improvements in nutrition and healthcare. "An individual's genetics has a big influence on their height, but once you average over whole populations, genetics plays e less key role," he added.
A little extra height brings a number of advantages, says Elio Riboli of Imperial College. "Being taller is associated with longer life expectancy," he said. "This is largely due to a lower risk of dying of cardiovascular (心血管的）disease among taller people."
But while height has increased around the world, the trend in many countries of north and sub-Saharan Africa causes concern, says Riboli. While height increased in Uganda and Niger during the early 20th century, the trend has reversed in recent years, with height decreasing among 18-year-olds.
"One reason for these decreases in height is the economic situation in the 1980s," said Alexander Moradi of the University of Sussex. The nutritional and health crises that followed the policy of structural adjustment, he says, led to many children and teenagers failing to reach their full potential in terms of height.
Bentham believes the global trend of increasing height has important implications. "How tall we are now is strongly influenced by the environment we grew up in," he said. "If we give children the best possible start in life now, they will be healthier and more productive for decades to come."
51.What does the global study tell us about people's height in the last hundred years?
A) There is a remarkable difference across continents.
B) There has been a marked increase in most countries.
C) The increase in people's height has been quickening.
D) The increase in women's height is bigger than in men's.
52.What does James Bentham say about genetics in the increase of people's height?
A) It counts less than generally thought.
B) It outweighs nutrition and healthcare.
C) It impacts more on an individual than on a population.
D) It plays a more significant role in females than in males.
53.What does Elio Riboli say about taller people?
A) They tend to live longer.
B) They enjoy an easier life.
C) They generally risk fewer fatal diseases.
D) They have greater expectations in life.
54.What do we learn about 18-year-olds in Uganda and Niger?
A) They grow up slower than their peers in other countries.
B) They are actually shorter than their earlier generations.
C) They find it hard to bring their potential into full play.
D) They have experienced many changes of government.
55.What does James Bentham suggest we do?
A) Watch closely the global trend in children's development.
B) Make sure that our children grow up to their full height.
C) Try every means possible to improve our environment.
D) Ensure our children grow up in an ideal environment.